This work is about the use of two ionic liquids obtained from fatty acids (FAILs) as an additive at 0.5 and 2 wt% to a polyol ester (POE) base oil. Tribological tests under two different configurations (reciprocating and sliding/rolling “ball-on-disc”) were performed at different temperatures and loads. Worn surface was measured and analyzed after reciprocating experiments by confocal and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Main results showed that these FAILs at low concentration did not change the viscosity of the POE and hence the tribological behaviors of the mixtures and the POE under elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) in rolling/sliding tests were similar, but using mixtures resulted in lower friction regarding the POE under mixed lubrication regime; the friction behavior in reciprocating tests was similar with the use of all mixtures and the POE at 25 °C for the two loads used, while the mixtures outperformed the antiwear behavior of the POE; the antifriction behavior of the mixtures under both loads at 100 °C was slightly worse than that of the POE and all mixtures had better antiwear performance than the POE.
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