Fuels

PCS' instruments are at the forefront of fuels testing. With the range of equipment PCS offers, users can run internationally recognised standard tests (including ASTM, ISO and more) on both diesel fuels and jet fuels.

PCS Instruments offers a range of equipment for fuel testing requirements. At the forefront of this range are the HFRR and the ABS, both of which can perform internationally recognised standard tests.

The High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) is a reciprocating friction and wear test system which provides a fast, repeatable assessment of the performance of fuels and lubricants. It is particularly suitable for wear testing relatively poor lubricants such as diesel fuels and for boundary friction measurements of engine oils, greases and other compounds. It has become the industry standard test for diesel fuel lubricity and conforms to ASTM D6079, ASTM D7688, CEC F-06-A, ISO 12156, EN 590, JPI-5S-50, and IP 450.

The Automated BOCLE System (ABS) is a Ball-on-Cylinder wear test system which provides a fast, repeatable assessment of the performance of jet fuels that fully conforms to the ASTM D5001 test method for “Measurement of Lubricity of Aviation Turbine Fuels by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator”.

Fuels industry facts:

  • Crude oil and natural gas liquid production exceeded 4500 million tonnes in 2019
  • The United States has increased the amount of crude oil and natural gas liquids it exports by 1200% over the last 10 years
  • An average driver in the UK will spend over £56,000 on petrol in their lifetime
  • Middle distillates and motor gasoline remain the most in demand oil product groups

Fuels Industry includes the following:

Automotive

Automotive

In automotives, fuels not only are used to generate power through combustion but also need to help protect and maintain the engine parts. Intense tribological research in this area is constantly ongoing.

Aviation

Aviation

With commercial airliners using thousands of kilograms of fuel per hour, optimising its performance in terms of protecting engine parts and efficiency is an area of interest and significant work for tribologists.

Biofuels

Biofuels

Biofuels are an expanding sector in the fuels industry. It is an area of intense tribological study with the goal of creating more environmentally friendly fuels that operate just as effectively as current fuels.

Marine

Marine

Boats and ships operate in wet, often salty, conditions. Tribologists are working hard to develop more environmentally friendly and better performing fuels that can protect engine parts in these unique conditions.

Instruments for the Fuels Industry

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Fuels Industry Articles & Papers

Paper

Compositions Containing Diesel and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester/Maleic Anhydride/Esters (FAME/MA/Esters) and the Use of FAME/MA/Esters to Improve the Lubricity of Diesel

A composition containing diesel (e.g., containing less than about 15 ppm sulfur) and fatty acid methyl ester/maleic anhydride/esters (FAME/MA/esters), wherein …

A composition containing diesel (e.g., containing less than about 15 ppm sulfur) and fatty acid methyl ester/maleic anhydride/esters (FAME/MA/esters), wherein the FAME/MA/esters are prepared by a method involving reacting FAME with MA to form FAME/MA and reacting FAME/MA with alkyl alcohol to form FAME/MA/esters; wherein the FAME is conjugated. The FAME/MA/esters are produced from tung oil or from plant oils in which the unsaturated fatty acids have been converted to conjugated fatty acids. Also a method of improving the lubricity of diesel, involving combining diesel and FAME/MA/esters, wherein the FAME/MA/esters are prepared by a method involving reacting FAME with MA to form FAME/MA and reacting FAME/MA with alkyl alcohol to form FAME/MA/esters; wherein the FAME is conjugated.

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Paper

Lubricating Oil Additives

A lubricating composition comprises at least 50 percent by mass, based on the mass of the composition of an oil …

A lubricating composition comprises at least 50 percent by mass, based on the mass of the composition of an oil of lubricating viscosity and 0.01 to 25 percent by mass, based on the mass of the composition of an oil-soluble poly (2-oxazine) polymer. The polymer has the repeat unit: -N(COR 1)CH 2CH 2CH 2- where the number (n) of repeat units is an integer between 4 and 500, such as between 4 and 400. The polymer carries an inorganic or organic nucleophilic polymerisation terminating group (t), and an initiator group (i) connected to the N atom of a repeat unit, the initiator group (i) being effective to initiate the polymerisation of linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbyl moieties. R1 comprises a single or a mixture of linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbyl groups having 1-50 carbon atoms, some or all having 12-50 carbon atoms, or of at least one macro-monomeric hydrocarbyl group with more than 50 carbon atoms.

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