Category: ABS

Enhancing the lubricity of gas-to-liquid (GTL) paraffinic kerosene: impact of the additives on the physicochemical properties

Synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) is an ultra-clean fuel with low aromatic content and negligible quantities of sulfur compounds. Although, SPK has a good potential to replace the conventional fuel Jet A-1, it also has some deficiencies. One of them is the low lubricity compared to its conventional counterpart Jet A-1. To improve the lubricity of SPK, three selected additives have been mixed with SPK at different concentrations. The lubricity of the samples was determined experimentally and the samples that meet the industry specifications have been studied further. The effect of the additives on the physicochemical properties, such as, density, flash point, freezing point, viscosity, and heat content, were investigated. Linoleic acid was found to be an excellent lubricity improver even at a very low concentration and its negative impact on the other physicochemical properties was found to be insignificant. Ethyl oleate also demonstrated significant improvement in lubricity at low concentrations but had a negative impact on the fuel’s freezing point at high concentrations. Quinoline, at high concentrations, elevated the blend’s freezing point above the acceptable limits. In parallel to the experimental campaign, a pre-existing mathematical modelling tool was utilized to predict the properties of interest. The lubricity model was successfully introduced into the mathematical model in order to improve the capabilities of the model. Linoleic acid sample showed the best improvement in lubricity of SPK with wear scar diameter of 417 μm; well below the ASTM D7566 maximum limit of 850 μm. The dual nature of this study facilitated the optimization of the physicochemical properties of the fuel samples.