Formula 1 (F1) is a sport where milliseconds can mean the difference between winning a championship and finishing second. To make sure that these high-performance machines run at their peak, every component and factor must be considered, including those that involve friction, lubrication, and wear. This is where tribology comes into its own for racing. In the fast-paced world of F1 racing, tribology’s influence is of the highest importance, dictating efficiency, performance, and longevity across almost every aspect of an F1 race car.
Engine Performance and Efficiency
At the heart of every F1 car is a high-revving, horsepower-churning, incredibly complex engine. Tribology is pivotal in enabling that the engine runs smoothly and efficiently. As components like pistons, crankshafts, and valves interact, they create friction, leading to energy loss and excessive wear. F1 teams spend considerable time and resources studying frictional behaviours in the engine to develop specialised lubricants that reduce these energy losses.
Engine oils in F1 cars are used to cool over 300 moving components and must survive the high g-forces and frictional issues of F1 racing, all while still minimising wear and maintaining performance and reliability! A lot of research therefore goes into engine oils and lubricants to keep the cars running healthily.
With the perfect lubricant, engine components slide past each other more efficiently, translating to more power and better fuel economy. All of this means that where a normal car averages around 180-200 HP, F1 engines can produce around 1000 HP from just 1.6 litres!
One of the critical areas where friction is both an ally and an enemy in F1, is in the braking system.
F1 brakes are mostly very similar to normal brakes on a car, with the driver stepping on the brake pedal, compressing two master brake cylinders – one for both the front wheels the rear. This generates fluid pressure – which is delivered directly to the brake callipers – inside of which six pistons clamp brake pads against the disc, slowing the car down.
While this general principal applies to the front tyres, the back tyres and brakes are much more complicated. Read more about how complex F1 braking systems actually are!
While friction is needed to reduce speed, excessive heat generated from the interaction of the brake pads and can lead to brake fade and reduced performance. By understanding the tribological interactions between brake pads and discs, F1 teams can design systems that provide optimal stopping power without compromising on reliability.
Tyre and Track Interaction
Tyres play a pivotal role in an F1 car’s performance. The contact area, or the patch of the tyre in direct contact with the racetrack, is the sole source of grip and drive for the racers.
Tribology is key helping F1 teams in understanding how the rubber interacts with different track surfaces, temperatures, and conditions. As the race car pounds around the circuit, its tyres will suffer wear and degradation through the extreme heat of braking, accelerating, and cornering – and will slowly be worn down by these interactions with the race-track surface.
Because there is a singular provider of tyres for F1 cars (Pirelli), F1 teams must research and gain as much data as possible from their drivers and the car’s on-board systems to know what tyres would be best to use for certain situations. This knowledge and testing aids teams in selecting the right tyre compounds and strategies for each race, ensuring optimal grip and tyre longevity.
Gearbox and Transmission
Shifting gears smoothly and quickly is paramount in F1. Any delay can result in lost time, or worse, a mechanical failure. Tribological studies into gears and gearboxes is hugely important for F1 teams, as drivers, on average, change gears 40-60 times each lap. That means a total of around 3000-3500 gear changes for a Grand Prix!
To put the strain F1 gearboxes face into perspective: a petrol-fuelled, standard sedan engine runs at a maximum rpm of around 6000-9000 RPM. The regulations for F1 means that the upper rpm limits F1 car’s engine should not exceed 15000 RPM! In fact the drivers change gears so quickly and so regularly that gears are shifted using electronic paddles on the steering wheel, which are linked to and controlled by an onboard computer, instead of manually by the driver.
The gearbox contains hundreds of interlocking components that need to slide past each other efficiently. Lubrication and protection of these incredibly fast-moving gears is of the utmost importance, and research is constantly being conducted into improving the different lubricant variations and narrowing down the ideal lubricants for certain gearboxes.
Reliability and Longevity
The overall reliability and maintenance of an F1 car over the course of the season is the culmination of all the previous points. With races often running for close to two hours, and an entire season consisting of numerous races, reliability is just as crucial as outright speed. A failure in any component can spell disaster for a team’s championship aspirations. Tribology can mean that materials chosen for various parts of the car, from the engine to the suspension, and the gearbox to tyres are resistant to wear and can withstand the incredible stresses of racing.
Tribology is often overlooked in mainstream discussions about F1 but plays a crucial role behind the scenes. The influence of tribology in F1 racing extends far beyond just engine lubrication. It touches almost every aspect of car design and strategy, creating optimal performance and reliability. As F1 continues to push the boundaries of technology and speed, the importance of understanding and optimising the interactions between surfaces in relative motion will remain at the forefront.