In response to regulatory requirements, lubricant manufacturers are seeking oils that minimize soot thickening and the accompanying soot wear. Formulation technology is being developed by additive manufacturers to satisfy these requirements. For example, such work is in progress at Chevron Oronite Company LLC, using the Cummins M-11 exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) engine test as a surrogate for the anticipated soot wear test for PC-10. Simultaneously, the authors developed bench tests to screen candidate formulations and reduce costs., A ball-on-disc sliding wear test, using a PCS Instruments MTM® tribometer, has been investigated. Sliding conditions at high pressure are required for soot polishing wear. Conditions that correlate tribometer test results with M-11 engine results at high soot concentrations (∼9 per cent) have been found. Both ball wear and Stribeck curves were determined in these tests. The high-wear oil progresses from mixed lubrication conditions to boundary lubrication at higher sliding speeds than the low-wear oil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were also conducted on the ball wear scars, revealing differences in the chemical constitution of the tribofilms from the two oils.
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